Methodology, Design and Implementation of Solid Waste Analysis (SWA), Turkey

The ARGUS approach consists of a well developed sampling and sorting methodology and an evaluation process to predict the accuracy of the SWA results. According to the local circumstances we can propose three different methodologies for SWA. The differences are found primarily in taking the sampling units.


Waste composition information has widespread applications and can be used for activities such as:

  •  Development of Solid Waste Management Concepts and Plans
  •  Monitoring of waste management measures (treatment or separate collection)
  •  Designing of waste management facilities
  •  Monitoring of waste regulations and directives (e.g. quotas of recycled packaging waste)


  • Sampling at source (waste generator)  

- preferred solution, waste is collected as close as possible to the generator

  • Sampling at landfill site from waste collection vehicles before disposing  

- not recommendable because of difficulties taking sub-samples from compressed waste and high humidity content of MSW in Turkey

  • Sampling at waste treatment plants from conveyer belts  

- treatment plants are not available in the testing Areas


Sampling Plan

  • 4 analysis campaigns due to strong seasonal variations

of waste quantities and composition (to attain sufficient data, surveys should include at least campaigns in summer- and winter time).

  • Stratification of the parent population.

Dependencies of waste amount and composition from criteria such as social structure, residential structure, bin size, fee system, different collection systems etc. should be considered and will reduce the variance and therefore the costs of the Analysis

  • Multistage stratified random selection

(district --> town --> residential block/ street --> container/ sack) The multistage approach reduces the expenditure of collecting survey-relevant data and taking samples. Relevant information about the waste generator is needed on the lowest stage only (reduction of planning effort). The samples can be taken from the selected areas on the lowest stage (reduction of sampling effort).



Sampling at source


Planning data

  • Number of inhabitants, number and kind of commercial activities subdivided into branches, number of employees and turnover subdivided into branches etc.
  • Statistics about amounts of waste subdivided into types of waste (MSW, D&C waste, industrial waste, garden & park waste, hazardous waste, medical waste etc.)
  • Information on residential structure (e.g. high, middle, low income, commercial areas)
  • Statistics about waste collection such as number of bins and refuse vehicles, routes of collection vehicles,
  • Address of origin of the sample and number and kind of waste bins, containers or refuse bags at sampled address
  • Number of persons living at sampled address (may be polled at a later stage)
  • Degree to which the containers are filled (used volume)
  • Time period of sampled container before pick-up (removal interval)
  • Implemented separate collection systems
  • Type of heating system (solid fuels)

Sampling at source

  • The collection of waste to be analysed is conducted on the day of regular waste pick-up before arrival of collection vehicles.
  • For the transport a truck with car hoist is used. This truck is carrying along empty 1,1 m³-containers to collect the samples. The content of waste samples - separated according to different sectors - are emptied into the 1,1 m³-containers.
  • The samples can be provided in waste bins, containers or refuse bags, which will be transferred into the carried along containers and merged to sample units of 1 m³.
  • The 1,1 m³-waste containers to be sampled are exchanged with a replacement of same size.


Optional: Screening


The sorting analysis includes the following steps:

  • Determination of weight (net mass) for each sampling unit.
  • Sieving of waste into fractions.
  • Fraction > 40 mm will be sorted completely into the defined categories.
  • A representative sub-sample from the fraction >10 to 40 mm will be taken and sorted completely into the defined categories.
  • Fine fraction <10 mm will not be further sorted. The fine fraction is equal to the sorting category fine fraction.
  • The fractions and separated categories will be weighted and recorded for each sampling unit.


Assessment and validation
The amount and composition of household waste and commercial waste will be extrapolated based on the sampling results. The extrapolation will be performed according to proven and tested statistical methods.

For validation, the sample variance will be calculated and also be extrapolated to the parent population. Derived from the variance, the confidence interval will be calculated and compared with the defined acceptable deviation (e. g. 10 % accuracy) from the mean value.